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Hong: Use of non-compliance rate as a tool for the operational HACCP prerequisite evaluation

Abstract

This study was conducted to propose the use of a non-compliance rate for evaluation of the HACCP operational condition. We calculated the sectoral non-compliance rate from the HACCP prerequisite evaluation reports. This rate indicates vulnerability of the operational prerequisite conditions that must be improved to increase HACCP reliability for safe foods. The common weak point in the livestock products industry was storage and transportation management, and operating condition in butcher shops were worse than those for the other livestock businesses. In order to obtain better information on findings, evaluation items should be improved simply with one item for evaluation of one check point.

์„œ๋ก 

HACCP ์šด์šฉํ‰๊ฐ€๋Š” ์ธ์ฆ์„ ์œ„ํ•œ ํ‰๊ฐ€์™€ ์ธ์ฆ ํ›„ ์šด์šฉ์ƒํƒœ๋ฅผ ํ‰๊ฐ€ํ•˜๋Š” ์กฐ์‚ฌยทํ‰๊ฐ€ (์‚ฌํ›„๊ด€๋ฆฌํ‰๊ฐ€)๋กœ ์ด๋ฃจ์–ด์ง„๋‹ค. ํ‰๊ฐ€์—์„œ ๋„์ถœ๋˜๋Š” ๋ถˆ์ผ์น˜ ๋‚ด์šฉ์€ ํ•ด๋‹น์—…์ฒด๋Š” ๋ฌผ๋ก  ์—…์ข…๋ณ„ HACCP ์šด์šฉ์ƒ์˜ ์ทจ์•ฝ์  ํŒŒ์•…์— ์ข‹์€ ์ •๋ณด๋ฅผ ์ œ๊ณตํ•˜๋ฉฐ, ๋นˆ๋ฒˆํžˆ ์ง€์ ๋˜๋Š” ๋‚ด์šฉ์€ ํ•ด๋‹น์—…์ฒด ๋ฐ ๋™์ข…์—…์ฒด์—์„œ ์šฐ์„ ์ ์œผ๋กœ ๊ฐœ์„ ๋˜์–ด์•ผ ํ•  ์ทจ์•ฝ๋ถ€๋ถ„์„ ์•Œ๋ ค์ค€๋‹ค. ์ด๋Ÿฌํ•œ ์ง€์ ๋ถ€๋ถ„์— ๋Œ€ํ•œ ์‹คํšจ์„ฑ ์žˆ๋Š” ๊ฐœ์„ ์€ HACCP ์šด์šฉ์ˆ˜์ค€์„ ๋†’์—ฌ์„œ ๋ณด๋‹ค ์‹ ๋ขฐํ•  ์ˆ˜ ์žˆ๋Š” ์•ˆ์ „ํ•œ ์ถ•์‚ฐ๋ฌผ์„ ์ƒ์‚ฐํ•˜๋Š” ํšจ๊ณผ๋ฅผ ๊ธฐ๋Œ€ํ•  ์ˆ˜ ์žˆ๋‹ค [4, 8].
HACCP ์„ ํ–‰์š”๊ฑด (prerequisite)์€ HACCP์„ ์ค€๋น„ํ•˜๊ณ  ์šด์šฉํ•˜๋Š” ๋ชจ๋“  ์—…์ฒด์—์„œ HACCP 7์›์น™์„ ์ ์šฉํ•˜๊ธฐ ์ „์— ๋ฐ˜๋“œ์‹œ ๊ฐ–์ถ”์–ด์•ผ ํ•  ์ž‘์—…ํ™˜๊ฒฝ์กฐ๊ฑด์œผ๋กœ, ์„ ํ–‰์š”๊ฑด์ด ํ•ฉ๋ฆฌ์ ์œผ๋กœ ๊ฐ–์ถ”์–ด์ง€์ง€ ๋ชปํ•œ ์ž‘์—…์žฅ์—์„œ๋Š” HACCP์ด ์ œ๋Œ€๋กœ ์ ์šฉ๋˜๊ฑฐ๋‚˜ ์šด์šฉ๋˜๊ธฐ ์–ด๋ ต๋‹ค [1]. ๊ทธ๋Ÿฌ๋‚˜ ์˜์„ธํ•œ ์—…์†Œ ํ˜น์€ ์†Œ๊ทœ๋ชจ ์—…์†Œ์—์„œ๋Š” ์žฌ์›๋ถ€์กฑ์œผ๋กœ ์ธํ•˜์—ฌ ์„ ํ–‰์š”๊ฑด์—์„œ ์š”๊ตฌํ•˜๋Š” ์‹œ์„ค๊ฐœ์„  ๋ฐ ๋ณด์™„์ด ๋ฏธํกํ•œ ์‹ค์ •์ด๋‹ค. ์ด๋Ÿฌํ•œ ์„ ํ–‰์š”๊ฑด์˜ ์ทจ์•ฝ์ ์€ HACCP์— ์˜ํ•œ ์‹คํšจ์„ฑ ์žˆ๋Š” ์•ˆ์ „์ถ•์‚ฐ๋ฌผ ์ƒ์‚ฐ ๋ฐ ๊ด€๋ฆฌ์— ๊ฑธ๋ฆผ๋Œ๋กœ ์ž‘์šฉํ•œ๋‹ค [2, 3, 5].
๋ณธ ์—ฐ๊ตฌ์—์„œ๋Š” ์„ ํ–‰์š”๊ฑด๋ถ„์•ผ์˜ ์ทจ์•ฝ์  ๋ฐ ๊ด€๋ฆฌ๊ฐ€ ๊ฐ•ํ™”๋˜์–ด์•ผ ํ•  ๋ถ€๋ถ„์„ ๋ณด๋‹ค ์‰ฝ๊ฒŒ ํŒŒ์•…ํ•˜๊ธฐ ์œ„ํ•˜์—ฌ โ€˜์ง€์ ์—…์†Œ ๋น„์œจ (non- compliance rate)โ€™์„ ์‚ฐ์ถœํ•˜์—ฌ ํ™œ์šฉํ•˜์˜€๋‹ค. ์ง€์ ์—…์†Œ ๋น„์œจ์ด๋ž€ ํ‰๊ฐ€ํ•ญ๋ชฉ๋ณ„ ์ง€์ ์‚ฌํ•ญ์— ๋Œ€ํ•˜์—ฌ ์ „์ฒด ํ‰๊ฐ€๋Œ€์ƒ ์—…์†Œ ์ˆ˜์—์„œ ์ง€์ ์—…์†Œ ์ˆ˜๋ฅผ ๋ฐฑ๋ถ„์œจ๋กœ ํ‘œ๊ธฐํ•œ ๊ฒƒ์œผ๋กœ, ํ‰๊ฐ€ํ•ญ๋ชฉ๋ณ„๋กœ ์š”๊ตฌํ•˜๋Š” ์ค€์ˆ˜์‚ฌํ•ญ์— ๋Œ€ํ•˜์—ฌ ํ•ด๋‹น ์—…์ฒด์˜ ์—…๋ฌด์ˆ˜ํ–‰ ์ผ์น˜๋„ ํ˜น์€ ๋งŒ์กฑ๋„๋ฅผ ๋‚˜ํƒ€๋‚ธ๋‹ค. ๋”ฐ๋ผ์„œ ์ง€์ ์—…์†Œ ๋น„์œจ์€ ์—…์ฒด์˜ HACCP ์šด์šฉ๋Šฅ๋ ฅ ์ˆ˜์ค€์„ ์ •๋Ÿ‰์ ์œผ๋กœ ํ‘œ๊ธฐํ•˜๋Š” ๋ฐฉ๋ฒ•์ด๋ผ๊ณ  ํ•˜๊ฒ ๋‹ค. ๊ตฌ์ฒด์ ์ธ ์‚ฐ์ถœ๋ฐฉ์‹์€ ๋‹ค์Œ๊ณผ ๊ฐ™๋‹ค.
โ—‹ ํ‰๊ฐ€ํ•ญ๋ชฉ์˜ ์ง€์ ์—…์†Œ ๋น„์œจ = ๋ถˆ์ผ์น˜๋กœ ์ง€์ ๋œ ์—…์†Œ ์ˆ˜ รท ํ•ด๋‹น๊ธฐ๊ฐ„์— ํ‰๊ฐ€๋ฐ›์€ ์—…์†Œ ์ˆ˜
โ—‹ ํ‰๊ฐ€๋ถ„์•ผ๋ณ„ ์ง€์ ์—…์†Œ ๋น„์œจ = ํ‰๊ฐ€๋ถ„์•ผ์˜ ์ง€์ ์—…์†Œ ์ˆ˜ รท ํ‰๊ฐ€๋ถ„์•ผ์˜ ํ‰๊ฐ€ํ•ญ๋ชฉ ์ˆ˜ รท ํ•ด๋‹น๊ธฐ๊ฐ„์— ํ‰๊ฐ€๋ฐ›์€ ์—…์†Œ ์ˆ˜

๋ถ„์„์ž๋ฃŒ

ํ˜„์žฅ์‹ค์‚ฌํ‰๊ฐ€๋Š” ์ถ•์‚ฐ๋ฌผ์•ˆ์ „๊ด€๋ฆฌ์ธ์ฆ๊ธฐ์ค€์˜ ์—…์ข…๋ณ„ ์‹ค์‹œ์ƒํ™ฉํ‰๊ฐ€ํ‘œ [9]์˜ ํ‰๊ฐ€ํ•ญ๋ชฉ ๋‚ด์šฉ๊ณผ์˜ ์ผ์น˜์—ฌ๋ถ€๋ฅผ ์‹ฌ์‚ฌํ•˜๊ณ  ํŒ์ •ํ•˜๊ณ , ์ง€์ ๋œ ๋ถˆ์ผ์น˜ ๋‚ด์šฉ์— ๋Œ€ํ•˜์—ฌ ๋ณด์™„ ๋ฐ ๊ฐœ์„  ๋“ฑ ์‹œ์ •์กฐ์น˜๋ฅผ ํ•˜๋Š” ๊ฒƒ์ด๋‹ค. ๋”ฐ๋ผ์„œ ํ‰๊ฐ€๊ธฐ๋ก์„ ํ™œ์šฉํ•˜๋ฉด ์—…์ฒด๋ณ„ ๊ฐ ํ‰๊ฐ€ํ•ญ๋ชฉ์—์„œ ์ง€์ ๋ฐ›์€ ๋‚ด์šฉ์„ ํŒŒ์•…ํ•  ์ˆ˜ ์žˆ์œผ๋ฏ€๋กœ ๋‹ค์–‘ํ•œ ๋ชฉ์ ์œผ๋กœ ํ™œ์šฉํ•  ์ˆ˜ ์žˆ๋‹ค. ๋ณธ ์—ฐ๊ตฌ์—์„œ๋Š” ์ง€์ ์—…์†Œ ๋น„์œจ์„ ์‚ฐ์ถœํ•˜๊ธฐ ์œ„ํ•œ ๋ถ„์„ ์ž๋ฃŒ๋กœ ์ถ•์‚ฐ๋ฌผ์•ˆ์ „๊ด€๋ฆฌ์ธ์ฆ์›์˜ HACCP ํ˜„์žฅํ‰๊ฐ€ ์‹ฌ์‚ฌ์ž๋ฃŒ(2007โˆผ2014๋…„)๋ฅผ ์ด์šฉํ•˜์˜€๋‹ค. ์ž๋ฃŒ์ •๋ฆฌ ๋ฐ ๋ถ„์„ ๊ฒฐ๊ณผ๋Š” ๋ณธ ์—ฐ๊ตฌ์ž๊ฐ€ ์ˆ˜ํ–‰ํ•œ 2012๋…„ ์—ฐ๊ตฌ๋ณด๊ณ ์„œ โ€˜HACCP ์šด์˜ ๋ฐ ํ‰๊ฐ€์˜ ํšจ์œจ์„ฑ ์ œ๊ณ ๋ฅผ ์œ„ํ•œ ์—ฐ๊ตฌโ€™์™€ 2014๋…„ ์—ฐ๊ตฌ๋ณด๊ณ ์„œ โ€˜๋†์žฅโˆผํŒ๋งค๋‹จ๊ณ„์˜ ์—…์ข…๋ณ„ HACCP ํ‘œ์ค€๋ชจ๋ธ ๊ฐœ๋ฐœโ€™์— ๊ธฐ๋ก๋˜์–ด ์žˆ๋‹ค [6, 7].

์„ ํ–‰์š”๊ฑด ์ง€์ ์—…์†Œ ๋น„์œจ์˜ ๋ณ€ํ™”

์‹์œกํŒ๋งค์—…, ์‹์œกํฌ์žฅ์ฒ˜๋ฆฌ์—…, ์œก๊ฐ€๊ณต์—…, ์œ ๊ฐ€๊ณต์—… 4๊ฐœ ์—…์ข…์˜ 2007-2009๋…„๋„์™€ 2010~1012๋…„๋„ HACCP ์„ ํ–‰์š”๊ฑด ํ‰๊ฐ€ ์ž๋ฃŒ๋ฅผ ๋น„๊ตํ•ด ๋ณด๋ฉด Table 1๊ณผ ๊ฐ™๋‹ค. ์—…์ข…๋ณ„ ๋น„๊ต์—์„œ 2010~2012๋…„๋„ ์‹์œกํฌ์žฅ์ฒ˜๋ฆฌ์—…, ์œก๊ฐ€๊ณต์—…, ์œ ๊ฐ€๊ณต์—…์˜ ์„ ํ–‰์š”๊ฑด ์ง€์ ์—…์†Œ ๋น„์œจ์ด 2007-2009๋…„๋„๋ณด๋‹ค ๋‚˜์•„์ง„ ๋ฐ˜๋ฉด, ์‹์œกํŒ๋งค์—…์€ ์ง€์ ์—…์†Œ ๋น„์œจ์ด ๋” ๋†’์•„์ง„ ๊ฒƒ์œผ๋กœ ๋‚˜ํƒ€๋‚ฌ๋‹ค. ์œ ๊ฐ€๊ณต์—…์˜ ์ง€์ ๋น„์œจ์ด ๋‹ค๋ฅธ ์—…์ข…์— ๋น„ํ•˜์—ฌ ๋‚ฎ์€ ๊ฒƒ์€ ์‹œ์„ค์‚ฐ์—…์— ํ•ด๋‹น๋˜๋Š” ์œ ๊ฐ€๊ณต๊ณต์ •์˜ ํŠน์„ฑ์ƒ ๋‹ค๋ฅธ ์—…์ข…์— ๋น„ํ•˜์—ฌ ์‹œ์„คํˆฌ์ž๊ฐ€ ๋งŽ์ด ์ด๋ฃจ์–ด์ง„ ์˜ํ–ฅ์œผ๋กœ ํŒ๋‹จ๋œ๋‹ค. ์‹์œกํŒ๋งค์—…์˜ ์ง€์ ์—…์†Œ ๋น„์œจ์ด 2007~2009๋…„์— ๋น„ํ•˜์—ฌ 2010~1012๋…„์— ๋†’๊ฒŒ ๋‚˜ํƒ€๋‚œ ์ด์œ ๋Š” HACCP ์ ์šฉ ์ดˆ๊ธฐ์—๋Š” ๋Œ€ํ˜•๋งˆํŠธ ์‹์œก๋งค์žฅ๊ณผ ๊ฐ™์ด ์ค‘๋Œ€ํ˜• ์—…์ฒด์ธ ๋ฐ˜๋ฉด ์ ์ฐจ ์†Œ๊ทœ๋ชจ ์—…์ฒด๋กœ ํ™•๋Œ€๋˜๋ฉด์„œ ์ธ๋ ฅํ™•๋ณด ๋ฐ ์‹œ์„คํˆฌ์ž ๋“ฑ HACCP ์ค€๋น„ ๋ฐ ์šด์šฉ์—์„œ ์ƒ๋Œ€์ ์œผ๋กœ ๋ฏธํกํ•œ๋ฐ ์›์ธ์ด ์žˆ๋‹ค๊ณ  ํŒ๋‹จ๋œ๋‹ค. ์ด๋Ÿฌํ•œ ํ˜„์ƒ์€ ๋ชจ๋“  ์—…์ข…์˜ HACCP ๋„์ž… ๋‹จ๊ณ„์—์„œ ๊ณตํ†ต์ ์œผ๋กœ ๋‚˜ํƒ€๋‚˜๋Š” ํ˜„์ƒ์ด์ง€๋งŒ, ํŠนํžˆ ์‹์œกํŒ๋งค์—…์€ ๊ทธ ๊ทœ๋ชจ๊ฐ€ ๋‹ค๋ฅธ ์—…์ข…์— ๋น„ํ•˜์—ฌ ์ƒ๋Œ€์ ์œผ๋กœ ์ž‘๊ณ  ๋˜ํ•œ ์†Œ๋น„์ž๋ฅผ ์ƒ๋Œ€๋กœ ์†Œ๋งค๊ฐ€ ์ด๋ฃจ์–ด์ง€๋Š” ์ž‘์—…ํ™˜๊ฒฝ์ด ์˜ํ–ฅ์„ ์ฃผ๋Š” ๊ฒƒ์œผ๋กœ ํŒ๋‹จ๋œ๋‹ค [4].
Tableย 1
Comparison of non-compliance rate of HACCP prerequisite operation in livestock product industry, 2007โˆผ2012
Management section Number of items2) Number of non-compliances Non-compliance rate(%)3)

2007-2009 2010-2012 2007-2009 2010-2012 2007-2009 2010-2012
โ€ƒโ€ƒ(Butcher shop) (138 plants) (101 plants)
Work place1) 24 23 84 130 2.5 5.6
Sanitation 7 7 45 65 4.7 9.2
Storage and transportation 12 12 118 122 7.1 10.1
Inspection 6 8 22 55 2.7 6.8
Recall - 1 - 0 - 0
โ€ƒโ€ƒTotal 49 51 269 372 4.0 7.2

โ€ƒโ€ƒ(Meat packing plant) (250 plants) (199 plants)
Work place1) 34 23 798 374 9.4 8.2
Sanitation 8 13 202 131 10.1 5.1
Storage and transportation 10 9 309 191 12.4 10.7
Inspection 6 8 115 85 7.7 5.3
Recall - 1 - 2 - 1.0
โ€ƒโ€ƒTotal 58 54 1,424 783 9.8 7.3

โ€ƒโ€ƒ(Meat processing plant) (102 plants) (77 plants)
Work place1) 34 34 274 150 7.9 5.7
Sanitation 8 8 68 30 8.3 4.9
Storage and transportation 10 10 137 117 13.4 15.2
Inspection 6 6 42 38 6.9 8.2
Recall - 1 - 1 - 1.3
โ€ƒโ€ƒTotal 58 59 521 336 8.8 7.4

โ€ƒโ€ƒ(Milk processing plant) (15 plants) (10 plants)
Work place1) 34 34 29 16 5.7 4.7
Sanitation 8 8 11 7 9.2 8.7
Storage and transportation 10 10 14 8 9.3 8.0
Inspection 6 6 0 0 0 0
Recall 1 1 0 0 0 0
โ€ƒโ€ƒTotal 59 59 54 31 6.1 5.3

1) Work place includes shop facilities, manufacturing facilities, chilled and frozen facilities.

2) Evaluation items changed due to the revision of Livestock HACCP Regulation as of July 2009.

3) Non-compliance rate (%) = (number of non-compliances / number of items / number of inspected plants) ร— 100.

์„ ํ–‰์š”๊ฑด ๋ถ„์•ผ๋ณ„๋กœ ๋น„๊ตํ•ด ๋ณด๋ฉด, ๋ชจ๋“  ์—…์ข…์—์„œ ๊ณตํ†ต์ ์œผ๋กœ ์ง€์ ์—…์†Œ ๋น„์œจ์ด ๋†’์€ ๋ถ„์•ผ๋Š” ๋ณด๊ด€ ๋ฐ ์šด๋ฐ˜๊ด€๋ฆฌ๋กœ ๊ฐ€์žฅ ์ทจ์•ฝํ•œ ๋ถ„์•ผ๋กœ ํŒŒ์•…๋˜์—ˆ๋‹ค. ๋˜ํ•œ ์‹์œกํŒ๋งค์—…์€ ์œ„์ƒ๊ด€๋ฆฌ, ์‹์œกํฌ์žฅ์ฒ˜๋ฆฌ์—…์€ ์ž‘์—…์žฅ๊ด€๋ฆฌ, ์œก๊ฐ€๊ณต์—…์€ ๊ฒ€์‚ฌ๊ด€๋ฆฌ, ์œ ๊ฐ€๊ณต์—…์€ ์œ„์ƒ๊ด€๋ฆฌ ๋ถ„์•ผ์˜ ์ง€์ ๋น„์œจ์ด ์ƒ๋Œ€์ ์œผ๋กœ ๋†’์•„์„œ ๊ด€๋ฆฌ๊ฐ€ ๊ฐ•ํ™”๋˜์–ด์•ผ ํ•  ๋ถ„์•ผ์ด์—ˆ๋‹ค. HACCP ์ ์šฉ์ด ์†Œ๊ทœ๋ชจ ์—…์ฒด์— ํ™•๋Œ€ ์ ์šฉ๋˜๋ฉด์„œ ์ด๋Ÿฌํ•œ ๋ถ„์•ผ๋Š” ๊ณตํ†ต์ ์œผ๋กœ ๋นˆ๋ฒˆํžˆ ์ง€์ ๋  ๊ฒƒ์œผ๋กœ ์˜ˆ์ƒ๋˜๋ฏ€๋กœ HACCP ์ธ์ฆ ์ค€๋น„๊ณผ์ •์€ ๋ฌผ๋ก  ์ธ์ฆ ํ›„ ์šด์šฉ์—์„œ ์„ธ์‹ฌํ•œ ๊ด€๋ฆฌ๊ฐ€ ์š”๊ตฌ๋œ๋‹ค.

์ง€์ ์—…์†Œ ๋น„์œจ์˜ ํ™œ์šฉ

์•ž์—์„œ์˜ ๋น„๊ต ๊ฒฐ๊ณผ๋ฅผ ๋ณด๋”๋ผ๋„ ์‚ฐ์ถœ๋œ ์ง€์ ์—…์†Œ ๋น„์œจ์€ HACCP ์šด์šฉ์ƒ์˜ ์ทจ์•ฝ๋ถ€๋ถ„ ๋ณด๊ฐ•์„ ์œ„ํ•œ ๊ธฐ์ˆ ์ง€๋„์™€ ์ •์ฑ…์ˆ˜๋ฆฝ์— ์œ ์šฉํ•˜๊ฒŒ ํ™œ์šฉํ•  ์ˆ˜ ์žˆ๋‹ค. ํŠนํžˆ (1)์„ ํ–‰์š”๊ฑด ๋ฐ HACCP ๊ด€๋ฆฌ์˜ ํ‰๊ฐ€๋ถ„์•ผ๋ณ„ ์ทจ์•ฝ์  ํŒŒ์•…, (2)์—…์ข…๋‚ด ์ทจ์•ฝ์  ํŒŒ์•… ๋ฐ ์—…์ฒด๊ฐ„ ์šด์šฉ์‹คํƒœ ๋น„๊ต, (3)๋™์ผ์—…์ฒด์˜ ๊ณผ๊ฑฐ ์‹ค์ ๊ณผ์˜ ๋น„๊ต๋กœ ๊ฐœ์„ ์ƒํƒœ ํŒŒ์•…์— ์œ ์šฉํ•˜๊ฒŒ ์ด์šฉํ•  ์ˆ˜ ์žˆ๋‹ค. ์ถ”๊ฐ€์ ์œผ๋กœ ์—…์ข…๊ฐ„์˜ ๋น„๊ต์—๋„ ํ™œ์šฉํ•  ์ˆ˜ ์žˆ์œผ๋‚˜ ์—…์ข…๊ฐ„ ํ‰๊ฐ€๊ธฐ์ค€์— ์ฐจ์ด๊ฐ€ ์žˆ๊ณ  ๋˜ํ•œ ์ž‘์—…ํ™˜๊ฒฝ์˜ ์ฐจ์ด๋กœ ์ธํ•œ ์—ฌ๋Ÿฌ ์š”์ธ์ด ๊ด€๋ จ๋˜๋ฏ€๋กœ ์ด๋Ÿฌํ•œ ๋ณ€์ˆ˜๋ฅผ ๊ณ ๋ คํ•˜์—ฌ์•ผ ํ•œ๋‹ค. ๋˜ํ•œ ๋ณด๋‹ค ์ •ํ™•ํ•œ HACCP ํ‰๊ฐ€๋ฅผ ์ˆ˜ํ–‰ํ•˜๊ธฐ ์œ„ํ•ด์„œ๋Š” ํ˜„ํ–‰ ์‹ค์‹œ์ƒํ™ฉํ‰๊ฐ€ํ‘œ๋ฅผ ๋ณด์™„ํ•˜์—ฌ ํ‰๊ฐ€ํ•ญ๋ชฉ๋ณ„ ํ‰๊ฐ€๋‚ด์šฉ์„ ์ดํ•ดํ•˜๊ธฐ ์‰ฝ๊ฒŒ ๋‹จ์ˆœํ™”ํ•˜๊ณ  ํ•ญ๋ชฉ ํ•˜๋‚˜์— ํ•œ ๊ฐ€์ง€ ์‚ฌํ•ญ๋งŒ์„ ์ ๊ฒ€ํ•˜๋„๋ก ์„ธ๋ถ„ํ™”ํ•  ํ•„์š”๊ฐ€ ์žˆ๋‹ค.

๊ฐ์‚ฌ์˜ ๊ธ€

๋ณธ ์—ฐ๊ตฌ๋Š” 2014๋…„๋„ ๊ฐ•์›๋Œ€ํ•™๊ต ํ•™์ˆ ์—ฐ๊ตฌ์กฐ์„ฑ๋น„๋กœ ์ˆ˜ํ–‰๋˜์—ˆ์Šต๋‹ˆ๋‹ค.

REFERENCES

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