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Han, Park, Nam, Lee, Ahn, Seo, Lee, Nahm, Choe, and Chang: Histological study of the effect of cellular phone electromagnetic wave on the neonatal rat cerebellar cortex

Abstract

To elucidate the effect of cellular phone electromagnetic wave (EMW) exposure on the developing cerebellar cortex of neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats, animals were exposed to cellular phone electromagnetic waves for 1 hr per day for 3 weeks. At the end of the experimental period, animals were sacrificed by cardiac perfusion, after which histological samples were prepared and observed microscopically. In the EMW exposure group, external granule cells were remained partially in the external granular layer without migrating into the internal granular layer. In addition, dark stained shrunken Purkinje cells with pyknotic nuclei increased and the outline of cells became irregular and showed degenerative signs, such as mitochondrial swelling and disrupted cristae. Moreover, the cisternae of rough endoplasmic reticula and Golgi complex were severely swollen. Bergmann glial cells adjacent to the dark stained Purkinje cells were swollen and cytoplasmic organelles were scant. Dark stained shrunken granule cells were also observed and the outline of cells was irregular. The results of the present study suggest that cellular phone EMW exposure to neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats leads to a partial delay of early migration of cerebellar cortical cells and degenerative changes in Purkinje cells, Bergmann glial cells and granule cells.

์„œ๋ก 

์ตœ๊ทผ์— ์ „ ์„ธ๊ณ„์ ์œผ๋กœ ํœด๋Œ€์ „ํ™”๋ฅผ ์‚ฌ์šฉํ•˜๋Š” ์ธ๊ตฌ๊ฐ€ ๊ธ‰์ฆํ•˜๋ฉด์„œ ์ผ๋ถ€ ๊ตญ๊ฐ€์—์„œ๋Š” ์ธ๊ตฌ์˜ 80% ์ด์ƒ์ด ํœด๋Œ€์ „ํ™”๋ฅผ ์‚ฌ์šฉํ•˜๊ณ  ์žˆ์–ด [3]. ํœด๋Œ€์ „ํ™”๋กœ๋ถ€ํ„ฐ์˜ ์ „์žํŒŒ ๋…ธ์ถœ์— ๋Œ€ํ•ด ๊ฑด๊ฐ•์„ ์—ผ๋ คํ•˜๋Š” ํ˜„์ƒ์ด ๋Š˜์–ด๋‚˜๊ณ  ์žˆ๋‹ค. ์‚ฌ๋žŒ์—์„œ ํœด๋Œ€์ „ํ™”์˜ ์‚ฌ์šฉ์— ๋”ฐ๋ฅธ ๊ฑด๊ฐ•์˜ ์œ„ํ•ด์„ฑ์ด ์ฆ๊ฐ€ํ•˜๊ณ  ์žˆ๋‹ค๋Š” ๋ณด๊ณ ๊ฐ€ ์žˆ๊ณ  [7-9], ์ „์ž๊ธฐํŒŒ(electromagnetic wave, EMW)์— ์˜ํ•œ ์–ด๋ฆฐ์ด ๋ฐฑํ˜ˆ๋ณ‘(leukemia)๊ณผ ๋‡Œ์ข…์–‘์ด ๋ณด๊ณ ๋˜์–ด ์žˆ๋‹ค [12]. ์ „์ž๊ธฐํŒŒ ๋…ธ์ถœ์ด ์„ค์น˜๋ฅ˜์˜ ๋‡Œ์„ธํฌ์—์„œ ์„ธํฌ์ž๋ฉธ์‚ฌ(apoptosis)๋ฅผ ํ˜„์ €ํ•˜๊ฒŒ ์ฆ๊ฐ€์‹œํ‚ค์ง€ ์•Š๋Š”๋‹ค๋Š” ๋ณด๊ณ ๊ฐ€ ์žˆ๋Š” ๋ฐ˜๋ฉด์— [1, 11, 19], ์ด์— ๋ฐ˜ํ•˜๋Š” ์ฃผ์žฅ์„ ํ•˜๋Š” ์—ฐ๊ตฌ์ž๋“ค๋„ ์žˆ๋‹ค [14, 18, 21]. ํœด๋Œ€์ „ํ™”๋กœ๋ถ€ํ„ฐ ๋ฐœ์ƒ๋˜๋Š” ์ „์ž๊ธฐํŒŒ์˜ ๋…ธ์ถœ์ด ์‚ฌ๋žŒ์˜ ๋‡Œ์— ๋ฏธ์น˜๋Š” ์˜ํ–ฅ์— ๋Œ€ํ•ด ์—ฐ๊ตฌ๊ฐ€ ์ˆ˜ํ–‰๋˜์–ด ์™”์Œ์—๋„ ๋ถˆ๊ตฌํ•˜๊ณ  ์•„์ง ์‚ฌ๋žŒ์˜ ์ค‘์ถ”์‹ ๊ฒฝ๊ณ„์— ๋Œ€ํ•œ ์ „์ž๊ธฐํŒŒ ๋…ธ์ถœ์˜ ๋ถ€์ž‘์šฉ์€ ์—ฌ์ „ํžˆ ๋…ผ๋ž€์ด ๋˜๊ณ  ์žˆ๋‹ค [10].
ํœด๋Œ€์ „ํ™”์˜ ์‚ฌ์šฉ์— ๋”ฐ๋ฅธ ์ „์ž๊ธฐํŒŒ์˜ ์˜ํ–ฅ์— ๋Œ€ํ•ด ๋‹ค๋ฅธ ๊ธฐ๊ด€๋ณด๋‹ค ๋‡Œ์— ๋Œ€ํ•œ ์—ฐ๊ตฌ๊ฐ€ ๋งŽ์Œ์€ ํœด๋Œ€์ „ํ™”๋ฅผ ์‚ฌ์šฉํ•  ๋•Œ ์ „ํ™”๊ธฐ์˜ ์œ„์น˜๊ฐ€ ๋‡Œ์— ๊ฐ€๊น๊ฒŒ ์œ„์น˜ํ•˜๊ธฐ ๋•Œ๋ฌธ์ผ ๊ฒƒ์œผ๋กœ ์ƒ๊ฐํ•  ์ˆ˜ ์žˆ๋‹ค.
๋ณธ ์—ฐ๊ตฌ์—์„œ๋Š” ์ถœ์ƒ ์งํ›„๋ถ€ํ„ฐ 3์ฃผ๊ฐ„ ์‹ ์ƒ ๋žซ๋“œ์— ํœด๋Œ€์ „ํ™” ์ „์ž๊ธฐํŒŒ๋ฅผ ๋…ธ์ถœ์‹œ์ผœ ์‚ฌ๋žŒ์˜ ์ž„์‹  ํ›„๊ธฐ์— ํ•ด๋‹นํ•˜๋Š” ์†Œ๋‡Œ์˜ ๋ฐœ๋‹ฌ ๋‹จ๊ณ„์—์„œ ์ „์ž๊ธฐํŒŒ๊ฐ€ ์–ด๋–ค ์˜ํ–ฅ์„ ๋ฏธ์น˜๋Š”์ง€ ์•Œ์•„๋ณด๊ณ ์ž ์ผ€์ด์ง€ ์†์— ์žˆ๋Š” ์ƒˆ๋ผ ๋žซ๋“œ์— ํœด๋Œ€์ „ํ™”๊ธฐ๋ฅผ ๊ฐ€๊น๊ฒŒ ์ ‘๊ทผ์‹œํ‚จ ์ƒํƒœ์—์„œ ์ „์ž๊ธฐํŒŒ์— ๋…ธ์ถœ์‹œํ‚ค๊ณ  ์†Œ๋‡Œ ๊ฒ‰์งˆ์„ ๊ตฌ์„ฑํ•˜๋Š” ์„ธํฌ๋“ค์˜ ํ˜•ํƒœ์  ๋ณ€ํ™”๋ฅผ ๊ด€์ฐฐํ•˜๊ณ ์ž ํ•˜์˜€๋‹ค.

์žฌ๋ฃŒ ๋ฐ ๋ฐฉ๋ฒ•

์‹คํ—˜๋™๋ฌผ ๋ฐ ์ „์ž๊ธฐํŒŒ๋…ธ์ถœ

์ž„์‹ ํ•œ 2๋งˆ๋ฆฌ์˜ Sprague-Dawley ๋žซ๋“œ์— ์Œ๋ฃŒ์ˆ˜์™€ ์‚ฌ๋ฃŒ๋ฅผ ์ถฉ๋ถ„ํžˆ ๊ณต๊ธ‰ํ•˜๋ฉด์„œ ๊ฑด๊ตญ๋Œ€ํ•™๊ต ์‹คํ—˜๋™๋ฌผ์œค๋ฆฌ์œ„์›ํšŒ์—์„œ ์ •ํ•œ ๊ทœ์ •์„ ์ค€์ˆ˜ํ•˜๋ฉฐ (IACUC KU17184) ์‹คํ—˜ํ™˜๊ฒฝ์— ์ ์‘์‹œ์ผœ ์ด 16๋งˆ๋ฆฌ์˜ ์ƒˆ๋ผ๋ฅผ ์ถœ์‚ฐ์‹œํ‚จ ํ›„ ์ƒˆ๋ผ๋ฅผ ์•”์ˆ˜๊ตฌ๋ถ„ ์—†์ด 8๋งˆ๋ฆฌ์”ฉ ๊ฐ๊ฐ ๋Œ€์กฐ๊ตฐ๊ณผ ์ „์ž๊ธฐํŒŒ๋…ธ์ถœ๊ตฐ์œผ๋กœ ๋‚˜๋ˆ ์„œ ์‹คํ—˜์„ ์ˆ˜ํ–‰ํ–ˆ๋‹ค. ์ถœ์ƒ ๋‹น์ผ๋ถ€ํ„ฐ ์ „์ž๊ธฐํŒŒ์— ๋…ธ์ถœํ•˜๋Š” ์‹œ๊ฐ„ ๋™์•ˆ์—๋Š” ์–ด๋ฏธ ์ฅ๋ฅผ ๊ฒฉ๋ฆฌํ•˜๊ณ  ์ƒˆ๋ผ ์ฅ๋ฅผ ์ˆ˜์šฉํ•œ ์ผ€์ด์ง€ ์ฒ ๋ง์œ„์— ๊ตญ๋‚ด์‚ฐ ์Šค๋งˆํŠธํฐ 2๊ฐœ๋ฅผ ๋™์‹œ์— ์˜ฌ๋ ค๋†“๊ณ  ๋งค์ผ ์˜ค์ „ 10์‹œ์™€ ์˜คํ›„ 3์‹œ์— ๊ฐ๊ฐ 30๋ถ„์”ฉ ์ง„๋™๋ชจ๋“œ๋กœ ์™ธ๋ถ€ ์ „ํ™”๊ธฐ์—์„œ ์ง€์†์ ์œผ๋กœ ๋ฐœ์‹ ์‹ ํ˜ธ๋ฅผ ๋ณด๋ƒˆ๋‹ค. ๋Œ€์กฐ๊ตฐ์€ ํœด๋Œ€์ „ํ™” ๋ฐœ์‹ ์‹ ํ˜ธ๋ฅผ ๋ณด๋‚ด์ง€ ์•Š์€ ๊ฒƒ์„ ์ œ์™ธํ•˜๊ณ  ๋‹ค๋ฅธ ์กฐ๊ฑด์€ ์ „์ž๊ธฐํŒŒ๋…ธ์ถœ๊ตฐ๊ณผ ๋™์ผํ•˜๊ฒŒ ์ฒ˜๋ฆฌํ–ˆ๋‹ค. ๋ฐœ์‹ ์‹ ํ˜ธ๋ฅผ ๋ณด๋‚ด๋Š” ๋™์•ˆ ๋ฐœ์ƒ๋˜๋Š” ์ „์ž๊ธฐํŒŒ์˜ ์–‘์€ EMR-20C ์ „์ž๊ธฐํŒŒ์ธก์ •๊ธฐ (Narda-STS, Germany)๋ฅผ ์‚ฌ์šฉํ•˜์—ฌ ์ธก์ •ํ–ˆ๋Š”๋ฐ ์ „์ฒด ์‹คํ—˜๊ธฐ๊ฐ„ ๋™์•ˆ ํ‰๊ท  4.5 ฮผW/ใŽ ์˜ ๊ฐ•๋„๋ฅผ ๋‚˜ํƒ€๋‚ด์—ˆ๋‹ค.

๊ด‘ํ•™ํ˜„๋ฏธ๊ฒฝ์  ์‹คํ—˜

Cresyl violet ์—ผ์ƒ‰

์ฃผ์–ด์ง„ ๊ธฐ๊ฐ„ ๋™์•ˆ ์ „์ž๊ธฐํŒŒ๋…ธ์ถœ ์ƒˆ๋ผ ๋žซ๋“œ์™€ ๋Œ€์กฐ๊ตฐ์˜ ๋žซ๋“œ๋ฅผ 2% paraformaldehyde - 2.5% glutaraldehyde ๊ณ ์ •์•ก์„ ์ด์šฉํ•˜์—ฌ ์‹ฌ์žฅ์„ ํ†ตํ•œ ๊ด€๋ฅ˜๊ณ ์ •์„ ์‹ค์‹œํ•˜์—ฌ ์†Œ๋‡Œ๋ฅผ ์ ์ถœํ•œ ํ›„ ๊ด‘ํ•™ํ˜„๋ฏธ๊ฒฝ์šฉ ํ‘œ๋ณธ์€ 10% buffered formalin์— ๊ณ ์ •ํ•œ ํ›„ ์†Œ๋‡Œ๋ฒŒ๋ ˆ ๋ถ€๋ถ„์ด ์ž˜ ๋…ธ์ถœ๋  ์ˆ˜ ์žˆ๊ฒŒ ์ •์ค‘์„ ์„ ๋”ฐ๋ผ ์ ˆ๋‹จํ•œ ํ›„ ethanol ํƒˆ์ˆ˜์™€ paraffin ํฌ๋งค ๊ณผ์ •์„ ๊ฑฐ์ณ 4 ฮผm ์ ˆํŽธ์„ ์ œ์ž‘ํ•˜์˜€๋‹ค. ์ œ์ž‘๋œ ์ ˆํŽธ์€ cresyl violet ์—ผ์ƒ‰์„ ์‹ค์‹œํ•˜์—ฌ ์ด๋ž‘๊ณผ ๊ณ ๋ž‘์˜ ํ˜•ํƒœ์™€ ์ „์ฒด์ ์ธ ์†Œ๋‡Œ ๊ฒ‰์งˆ์˜ ํ˜•ํƒœ๋ฅผ ๊ด€์ฐฐํ–ˆ๋‹ค.

์ค€์ดˆ๋ฐ•์ ˆํŽธ ์—ผ์ƒ‰ (Semithin section stain)

๊ด€๋ฅ˜๊ณ ์ •ํ•œ ์†Œ๋‡Œ ๋ฒŒ๋ ˆ๋ถ€์œ„๋ฅผ ์ ˆ์ทจํ•˜์—ฌ 1% osmium์‚ฐ์— ์ถ”๊ฐ€๋กœ ๊ณ ์ • ์ฒ˜๋ฆฌ ํ›„ ethanol ํƒˆ์ˆ˜๊ณผ์ •์„ ๊ฑฐ์ณ epon ํ˜ผํ•ฉ์•ก์— ํฌ๋งคํ•œ ํ›„ ultramicrotome์œผ๋กœ 1 ฮผm ์ ˆํŽธ์„ ์ž‘์„ฑํ•˜์—ฌ toluidine blue ์—ผ์ƒ‰ ํ›„ ํ˜„๋ฏธ๊ฒฝ์œผ๋กœ ๊ด€์ฐฐํ•˜์˜€๋‹ค.

ํˆฌ๊ณผ์ „์žํ˜„๋ฏธ๊ฒฝ์  ์‹คํ—˜

์ „์žํ˜„๋ฏธ๊ฒฝ์šฉ ํ‘œ๋ณธ์€ ๊ด€๋ฅ˜๊ณ ์ •์ด ๋๋‚œ ์กฐ์ง์„ ์ค€์ดˆ๋ฐ•์ ˆํŽธ ์ฒ˜๋ฆฌ์™€ ๋™์ผํ•œ ๊ณผ์ •์„ ๊ฑฐ์ณ ultramicrotome์œผ๋กœ 70 nm ์ ˆํŽธ์„ ์ œ์ž‘ํ•œ ํ›„ uranyl acetate-lead citrate ์ค‘๊ธˆ์† ์—ผ์ƒ‰์•ก์„ ์ด์šฉํ•˜์—ฌ ์—ผ์ƒ‰ํ•œ ํ›„ ํˆฌ๊ณผ์ „์žํ˜„๋ฏธ๊ฒฝ์œผ๋กœ ๋ฏธ์„ธ๊ตฌ์กฐ๋ฅผ ๊ด€์ฐฐํ•˜์˜€๋‹ค. ๋ฏธ์„ธ๊ตฌ์กฐ์˜ ๊ด€์ฐฐ์€ ์ฃผ๋กœ ์†Œ๋‡Œ์—์„œ ์šด๋™์˜ ํ†ตํ•ฉ๊ณผ ์กฐ์ •์— ๊ฐ€์žฅ ์ค‘์š”ํ•œ ์—ญํ• ์„ ์ˆ˜ํ–‰ํ•˜๋Š” Purkinje ์„ธํฌ์˜ ์ „๋ฐ˜์ ์ธ ํ˜•ํƒœ๋ฅผ ๊ด€์ฐฐํ•˜์˜€์œผ๋ฉฐ, ๋ถ„์ž์ธต ๊ฐ€๊นŒ์šด ์œ„์น˜์— ์กด์žฌํ•˜๊ณ  ์žˆ์œผ๋ฉฐ ์†Œ๋‡Œ ๋ฐœ๋‹ฌ ์ดˆ๊ธฐ์— ๋ฐ”๊นฅ๊ณผ๋ฆฝ์ธต์˜ ์ด์ฃผ๋ฅผ ์œ ๋„ํ•˜๋Š” Bergmann ์•„๊ต์„ธํฌ์™€ ๋”๋ถˆ์–ด ๊ณผ๋ฆฝ์„ธํฌ์˜ ๋ฏธ์„ธ๊ตฌ์กฐ๋„ ๊ด€์ฐฐํ•˜์˜€๋‹ค.
Figย 1
Light micrograph of control group. A. Cerebellar cortex is composed of 3 distinct layers. M: molecular layer, P: Purkinje cell layer, G: granule cell layer. cresyl violet stain. bar = 100 ฮผm. B. Higher magnification of cerebellar cortex. Normal morphology of Purkinje cells and granule cells are shown. cresyl violet stain. bar = 20 ฮผm. C. Semithin section and toluidine blue stain. bar = 10 ฮผm.
JPVM_42_010_fig_1.tif

๊ฒฐ๊ณผ

๊ด‘ํ•™ํ˜„๋ฏธ๊ฒฝ ๊ด€์ฐฐ์†Œ๊ฒฌ

๋Œ€์กฐ๊ตฐ

Cresyl violet ์—ผ์ƒ‰ํ•œ ๋Œ€์กฐ๊ตฐ์˜ ์†Œ๋‡Œ๋Š” ์—ฐ์งˆ๋ง‰ ์•„๋ž˜ ๋ฐ”๊นฅ๊ณผ๋ฆฝ์ธต์˜ ๋ถ„ํ™”๊ฐ€ ์ž˜ ์ด๋ฃจ์–ด์ ธ์„œ ๋ฐ”๊นฅ๊ณผ๋ฆฝ์ธต์˜ ๋ฏธ๋ถ„ํ™”์„ธํฌ๋Š” ๊ฑฐ์˜ ์กด์žฌํ•˜์ง€ ์•Š์•˜์œผ๋ฉฐ ๋ชจ๋‘ ๊ณผ๋ฆฝ์„ธํฌ์ธต์œผ๋กœ ์ด์ฃผ๊ฐ€ ์™„์ „ํ•˜๊ฒŒ ์ด๋ฃจ์–ด์ง„ ์†Œ๊ฒฌ์„ ๋ณด์—ฌ์ฃผ์—ˆ๋‹ค(Fig. 1A). ๊ฒ‰์งˆ์˜ ๊ตฌ์กฐ๋Š” ์„ธํฌ๊ฐ€ ๋“œ๋ฌผ๊ฒŒ ๊ด€์ฐฐ๋˜๋Š” ๋ถ„์ž์ธต์ด ๋ฐ”๊นฅ์— ์œ„์น˜ํ•˜๊ณ  ์žˆ์—ˆ์œผ๋ฉฐ ๊ฐ€์šด๋ฐ ํ•œ ์ธต์˜ ์ปค๋‹ค๋ž€ Purkinje ์„ธํฌ์ธต์ด ์žˆ๊ณ , ์•ˆ์ชฝ์— ์ˆ˜๋งŽ์€ ๊ณผ๋ฆฝ์„ธํฌ๋“ค๋กœ ์ด๋ฃจ์–ด์ง„ ๊ณผ๋ฆฝ์ธต์ด ์ „ํ˜•์ ์ธ ํ˜•ํƒœ๋ฅผ ์ด๋ฃจ๊ณ  ์žˆ์—ˆ๋‹ค. ํ•œ ์ธต์œผ๋กœ ๋ฐฐ์—ด๋œ Purkinje ์„ธํฌ๋Š” ๊ฐ€๋”์”ฉ ์ „์ž๋ฐ€๋„๊ฐ€ ๋†’์•„์„œ ์ง„ํ•˜๊ฒŒ ์—ผ์ƒ‰๋˜๋Š” ์„ธํฌ๋“ค์ด ๊ด€์ฐฐ๋˜๊ธฐ๋„ ํ•˜์˜€์œผ๋‚˜ ๊ทธ ์ˆ˜๋Š” ๋งŽ์ง€ ์•Š์•˜๊ณ  ๋Œ€๋ถ€๋ถ„ ์„ธํฌ์งˆ์ด ์˜…๊ฒŒ ์—ผ์ƒ‰๋˜๊ณ  ํ•ต์†Œ์ฒด๊ฐ€ ๋šœ๋ ทํ•˜๊ฒŒ ๋ณด์ด๋Š” ๊ฑด๊ฐ•ํ•œ ํ˜•ํƒœ๋ฅผ ๋‚˜ํƒ€๋‚ด๊ณ  ์žˆ์—ˆ์œผ๋ฉฐ ๋Œ€์ฒด๋กœ ์ผ์ •ํ•œ ๊ฐ„๊ฒฉ์„ ๋‘๊ณ  ๊ทœ์น™์ ์œผ๋กœ ์ถœํ˜„ํ•˜์˜€์œผ๋ฉฐ Purkinje ์„ธํฌ๊ฐ€ ์†Œ์‹ค๋œ ์„ธํฌ์˜ ํ‹ˆ์ƒˆ๊ฐ€ ๊ฑฐ์˜ ๊ด€์ฐฐ๋˜์ง€ ์•Š์•˜๋‹ค(Fig. 1B).
์ค€์ดˆ๋ฐ•์ ˆํŽธ์„ ์ž‘์„ฑํ•˜์—ฌ toluidine blue์— ์—ผ์ƒ‰ํ•œ ๋Œ€์กฐ๊ตฐ์˜ ์†Œ๋‡Œ๊ฒ‰์งˆ์€ ๋ถ„์ž์ธต๊ณผ ๊ณผ๋ฆฝ์ธต ์‚ฌ์ด์— Purkinje ์„ธํฌ์ธต์ด ๋šœ๋ ทํ•˜๊ฒŒ ๊ด€์ฐฐ๋˜์—ˆ์œผ๋ฉฐ Purkinje ์„ธํฌ๋Š” ์ผ์—ด๋กœ ์ธต์„ ์ด๋ฃจ์–ด ๋ฐฐ์—ด๋˜์–ด ์žˆ์—ˆ์œผ๋ฉฐ ์ค‘๋“ฑ๋„์˜ ์—ผ์ƒ‰์„ฑ์„ ๋ณด์—ฌ์ฃผ๊ณ  ๋น„๊ต์  ๋ฐ๊ฒŒ ๊ด€์ฐฐ๋˜์—ˆ๊ณ  ์„ธํฌ์˜ ์†์ƒ ์†Œ๊ฒฌ์ด ๊ฑฐ์˜ ๋ณด์ด์ง€ ์•Š์•˜๋‹ค(Fig. 1C).

์ „์ž๊ธฐํŒŒ๋…ธ์ถœ๊ตฐ

์ „์ž๊ธฐํŒŒ๋…ธ์ถœ๊ตฐ์˜ ์†Œ๋‡Œ ๊ฒ‰์งˆ์€ ๋Œ€๋ถ€๋ถ„์ด ์—ฐ์งˆ๋ง‰ ์•„๋ž˜ ๋ฐ”๊นฅ๊ณผ๋ฆฝ์„ธํฌ๊ฐ€ ์•ˆ์ชฝ์œผ๋กœ ์ด์ฃผํ•˜์—ฌ ์†๊ณผ๋ฆฝ์„ธํฌ๋กœ์„œ ๊ณผ๋ฆฝ์ธต์˜ ํ˜•์„ฑ์— ๊ธฐ์—ฌํ•˜๊ณ  ์žˆ์—ˆ์œผ๋‚˜ ์†Œ๋‡Œ ๊ฒ‰์งˆ์˜ ์ผ๋ถ€ ๊ณ ๋ž‘ ๋ถ€์œ„์—์„œ๋Š” ๋‹ค์ˆ˜์˜ ๋ฐ”๊นฅ๊ณผ๋ฆฝ์„ธํฌ๋“ค์ด ์ด์ฃผํ•˜์ง€ ์•Š๊ณ  ๋ฐ”๊นฅ๊ณผ๋ฆฝ์ธต์— ๋‚จ์•„์žˆ๋Š” ํ˜•ํƒœ๊ฐ€ ๊ด€์ฐฐ๋˜์—ˆ๋‹ค(Fig. 2A).
Fig.ย 2
Light micrograph of EMF exposure group. A. External granular layer (EG) is prominent beneath the pia mater. cresyl violet stain. bar = 100 ฮผm. B. Purkinje cells (P) are reduced and hard to see a distinct layer. cresyl violet stain. bar = 20 ฮผm. C. Dark stained Purkinje cells (P) are prominent. Semithin section and toluidine blue stain. bar = 10 ฮผm
JPVM_42_010_fig_2.tif
์ „์ž๊ธฐํŒŒ๋…ธ์ถœ๊ตฐ์˜ ์†Œ๋‡Œ ๊ฒ‰์งˆ์€ ๋Œ€์ฒด๋กœ ๋ถ„์ž์ธต๊ณผ ๊ณผ๋ฆฝ์ธต ์‚ฌ์ด์— Purkinje ์„ธํฌ๊ฐ€ ํ•œ ์ค„๋กœ ๋‚˜๋ž€ํžˆ ๋ฐฐ์—ด๋˜์—ˆ์œผ๋‚˜ ๋ถ€๋ถ„์ ์œผ๋กœ ์„ธํฌ๊ฐ€ ์†Œ์‹ค๋˜์–ด ์—†์–ด์ ธ์„œ Purkinje ์„ธํฌ์ธต์„ ๋šœ๋ ทํ•˜๊ฒŒ ๋ณด์—ฌ์ฃผ์ง€ ์•Š๋Š” ๊ฒƒ์ด ๊ด€์ฐฐ๋˜์—ˆ๋‹ค(Fig. 2B). Purkinje ์„ธํฌ๊ฐ€ ๋ถ€๋ถ„์ ์œผ๋กœ ์†Œ์‹ค๋œ ๊ณณ์— ์กด์žฌํ•˜๋Š” ์„ธํฌ๋“ค์€ ํ•ต๊ณผ ์„ธํฌ์งˆ์ด ์ง„ํ•˜๊ฒŒ ์—ผ์ƒ‰๋˜์–ด ์žˆ์—ˆ์œผ๋ฉฐ ์„ธํฌ์˜ ํ˜•ํƒœ๊ฐ€ ๋ถˆ๊ทœ์น™ํ•˜๊ฑฐ๋‚˜ ์œ„์ถ•๋œ ์†Œ๊ฒฌ๋„ ๊ด€์ฐฐ๋˜์—ˆ๊ณ  ํ•ต์†Œ์ฒด๋ฅผ ๋šœ๋ ทํ•˜๊ฒŒ ๊ตฌ๋ณ„ํ•  ์ˆ˜ ์žˆ๋Š” ์„ธํฌ์˜ ์ˆ˜๊ฐ€ ์ ์—ˆ๋‹ค.
์ค€์ดˆ๋ฐ•์ ˆํŽธ ์—ผ์ƒ‰์—์„œ๋Š” ๋ถˆ๊ทœ์น™ํ•˜๊ณ  ์ง„ํ•˜๊ฒŒ ์—ผ์ƒ‰๋œ Purkinje ์„ธํฌ๊ฐ€ ๋งค์šฐ ๋งŽ์ด ๊ด€์ฐฐ๋˜์—ˆ๋‹ค(Fig. 2C).

ํˆฌ๊ณผ์ „์žํ˜„๋ฏธ๊ฒฝ ๊ด€์ฐฐ์†Œ๊ฒฌ

๋Œ€์กฐ๊ตฐ

๋Œ€์กฐ๊ตฐ์˜ ์†Œ๋‡Œ๋ฒŒ๋ ˆ Purkinje ์„ธํฌ๋Š” ํ•ต์ด ๋ฐ๊ฒŒ ์—ผ์ƒ‰๋˜์–ด ์ฐธ์—ผ์ƒ‰์งˆ์ด ํ’๋ถ€ํ•˜์˜€์œผ๋ฉฐ ํ•ต์†Œ์ฒด๋„ ๋šœ๋ ทํ•˜๊ฒŒ ๊ด€์ฐฐ๋˜์—ˆ๋‹ค(Fig. 3A). ์„ธํฌ์งˆ์€ ์ค‘๋“ฑ๋„์˜ ์ „์ž๋ฐ€๋„๋ฅผ ๋ณด์—ฌ์ฃผ๊ณ  ์žˆ์—ˆ์œผ๋ฉฐ ์„ธํฌ์งˆ๋‚ด์— RER, Golgi ๋ณตํ•ฉ์ฒด, ์šฉํ•ด์†Œ์ฒด, ์‚ฌ๋ฆฝ์ฒด ๋“ฑ ์ •์ƒ์ ์ธ ํ˜•ํƒœ์˜ ์„ธํฌ์†Œ๊ธฐ๊ด€๋“ค์ด ํ’๋ถ€ํ•˜๊ฒŒ ๊ด€์ฐฐ๋˜์—ˆ์œผ๋ฉฐ ๊ฐ€์ง€๋Œ๊ธฐ์™€ ์ถ•์‚ญ๋„ ์ •์ƒ์ ์ธ ํ˜•ํƒœ๋ฅผ ๋ณด์—ฌ์ฃผ๊ณ  ์žˆ์—ˆ๋‹ค(Fig. 3B).
Fig.ย 3
Electron micrograph of control group. A. Normal morphology is shown in the Purkinje cell (P) and Bergman glial cells (BG). bar = 20 ฮผm. B. Purkinje cell cytoplasm shows aboundant cytoplasmic organelles including RER, Golgi complex (Go), and mitochondria (M). bar = 5 ฮผm. C. Normal morphology of Purkinje cell (P) and Bergmann glial cell (BG) is shown. bar = 10 ฮผm. D. Normal morphology of granule cells is shown. bar = 20 ฮผm.
JPVM_42_010_fig_3.tif
Bergmann ์•„๊ต์„ธํฌ๋Š” ์„ธํฌ์งˆ์ด ๋ฐ๊ฒŒ ๊ด€์ฐฐ๋˜์—ˆ์œผ๋ฉฐ ํ•ต๋„ ๋งŽ์€ ์ฐธ์—ผ์ƒ‰์งˆ์„ ๊ฐ€์ง€๊ณ  ์ „์ž๋ฐ€๋„๊ฐ€ ๋‚ฎ๊ฒŒ ๊ด€์ฐฐ๋˜์—ˆ์œผ๋ฉฐ Purkinje ์„ธํฌ์— ์ธ์ ‘ํ•˜์—ฌ ๋ถ„ํฌํ•˜๋Š” ์ •์ƒ์ ์ธ ๋ชจ์Šต์œผ๋กœ ๊ด€์ฐฐ๋˜์—ˆ๋‹ค(Fig. 3C). ๋Œ€์กฐ๊ตฐ์˜ ๊ณผ๋ฆฝ์„ธํฌ๋Š” ํ•ต๊ณผ ์„ธํฌ์งˆ์ด ์ •์ƒ์ ์ธ ์†Œ๊ฒฌ์„ ๋ณด์ด๊ณ  ์žˆ์—ˆ์œผ๋ฉฐ ์„ธํฌ์ฒด ์ฃผ์œ„์— ๋ง์ด์ง‘์ด ํ˜•์„ฑ๋˜์–ด ์žˆ๋Š” ๋ชจ์Šต์ด ๋šœ๋ ทํ•˜๊ฒŒ ๊ด€์ฐฐ๋˜์—ˆ๋‹ค(Fig. 3D).

์ „์ž๊ธฐํŒŒ๋…ธ์ถœ๊ตฐ

์ „์ž๊ธฐํŒŒ๋…ธ์ถœ๊ตฐ์˜ Purkinje ์„ธํฌ๋Š” ๋ถ„์ž์ธต๊ณผ ๊ณผ๋ฆฝ์ธต ์‚ฌ์ด์—์„œ ๋šœ๋ ทํ•˜๊ฒŒ ํฐ ์„ธํฌ๋กœ ๊ด€์ฐฐ๋˜์—ˆ์œผ๋ฉฐ ๋Œ€๋ถ€๋ถ„์˜ ์„ธํฌ์—์„œ ์„ธํฌ์งˆ๊ณผ ํ•ต์˜ ์ „์ž๋ฐ€๋„๊ฐ€ ๋†’์•„์„œ ์ง„ํ•˜๊ฒŒ ์—ผ์ƒ‰๋˜์—ˆ๋‹ค(Fig. 4A). ์ „์ž๋ฐ€๋„๊ฐ€ ๋†’์€ ์„ธํฌ๋Š” ๋Œ€๋ถ€๋ถ„ ์œ„์ถ•๋˜๊ณ  ๋ถˆ๊ทœ์น™ํ•œ ์™ธํ˜•์„ ๋ณด์˜€์œผ๋ฉฐ ์—ผ์ƒ‰์งˆ์ด ์ง„ํ•˜๊ฒŒ ์—ผ์ƒ‰๋œ ํ•ต๋„ ๋†์ถ•๋˜๊ณ  ๋ถˆ๊ทœ์น™ํ•œ ๋ชจ์–‘์„ ๋ณด์ด๊ณ  ์žˆ์—ˆ๋‹ค(Fig. 4B). ์ง„ํ•˜๊ฒŒ ์—ผ์ƒ‰๋œ ์„ธํฌ์งˆ์€ ์†Œ๊ธฐ๊ด€์ด ํ’๋ถ€ํ•˜๊ฒŒ ๊ด€์ฐฐ๋˜์—ˆ๋Š”๋ฐ ์‚ฌ๋ฆฝ์ฒด๋Š” ์ข…์ฐฝ๋˜๊ณ  ๋‚ด๋ถ€์— ์žˆ๋Š” ์‚ฌ๋ฆฝ์ฒด๋Šฅ์„ ์€ ์†์ƒ๋˜๊ฑฐ๋‚˜ ๋ถˆ๊ทœ์น™ํ•œ ๋ฐฐ์—ด์„ ๋‚˜ํƒ€๋‚ด์—ˆ๋‹ค. ๊ณผ๋ฆฝํ˜•์งˆ๋‚ด์„ธ๋ง๊ณผ Golgi ๋ณตํ•ฉ์ฒด๋Š” ์ˆ˜์กฐ๊ฐ€ ์‹ฌํ•˜๊ฒŒ ์ข…์ฐฝ๋˜๊ณ  ๋ถˆ๊ทœ์น™ํ•˜๊ฒŒ ํฉ์–ด์ ธ ์žˆ์—ˆ๋‹ค. ๋ถ„์ž์ธต์—๋Š” Purkinje ์„ธํฌ์˜ ๊ฐ€์ง€๋Œ๊ธฐ๊ฐ€์‹œ๊ฐ€ ๋‹ค์ˆ˜ ์ถœํ˜„ํ•˜์˜€์œผ๋ฉฐ ๊ฐ€์ง€๋Œ๊ธฐ๊ฐ€์‹œ ์•ˆ์—๋Š” ์ธตํŒ์†Œ์ฒด๋„ ์ข…์ข… ์ถœํ˜„ํ•˜์˜€๋‹ค(Fig. 4C). ์ผ๋ถ€ Purkinje ์„ธํฌ๋Š” ์„ธํฌ์ฒด๊ฐ€ ๋งค์šฐ ์œ„์ถ•๋˜์–ด์„œ ๊ฐ€์ง€๋Œ๊ธฐ์— ์—ฐ์†๋˜๋Š” ํ˜•ํƒœ๋กœ ๊ด€์ฐฐ๋˜์—ˆ๋‹ค(Fig. 4D).
Fig.ย 4
Electron micrograph of EMF exposure group. A. 3 dark stained Purkinje cells (P) are shown. bar = 20 ฮผm. B. Dark stained Purkinje cell (P) is slightly shrunken and shows irregular shape of cell boundary. Bergmann glial cell process contacts with Purkinje cell process (Pr) and contains lamellar body (arrow). bar = 5 ฮผm. C. Higher magnification of Purkinje cell. Swelled mitochondria (M) shows disrupted cristae and dilated RER and Golgi cisternae (Go) are prominent. bar = 2 ฮผm. D. Dark stained shrunken Purkinje cell shows a long dendrite (D). bar = 20 ฮผm. E. Dark stained shrunken Purkinje cell (P) is surrounded by glial processes. Bergmann glial cell (BG) shows hydropic degeneration (asterisks) and is severely swelled. Dendritic spine of Purkinje cell is shown and it contains lamellar body (arrow). bar = 10 ฮผm. F. Dark stained granule cells show degenerative signs. bar = 20 ฮผm.
JPVM_42_010_fig_4.tif
Bergmann ์•„๊ต์„ธํฌ๋Š” Purkinje ์„ธํฌ์— ์ธ์ ‘ํ•˜์—ฌ ๋ถ„์ž์ธต์„ ํ–ฅํ•œ ์œ„์น˜์— ์ถœํ˜„ํ•˜์˜€์œผ๋ฉฐ ๋น„๊ต์  ๋ณ€์„ฑ์ด ์‹ฌํ•˜์ง€ ์•Š์€ Purkinje ์„ธํฌ์— ์ธ์ ‘ํ•œ ์„ธํฌ๋Š” ๋Œ€์กฐ๊ตฐ๊ณผ ์œ ์‚ฌํ•˜๊ฒŒ Bergmann ์•„๊ต์„ธํฌ๋„ ์ •์ƒ์— ๊ฐ€๊นŒ์šด ํ˜•ํƒœ๋ฅผ ๋ณด์˜€์œผ๋‚˜ ์ „์ž๋ฐ€๋„๊ฐ€ ๋†’๊ณ  ๋ณ€์„ฑ์ด ์‹ฌํ•œ Purkinje ์„ธํฌ์— ์ธ์ ‘ํ•œ ์„ธํฌ๋“ค์€ ์„ธํฌ์งˆ์ด ์ข…์ฐฝ๋˜๊ณ  ๊ณตํฌ๊ฐ€ ๋งŽ์ด ์ถœํ˜„ํ•˜์˜€์œผ๋ฉฐ ์„ธํฌ์งˆ์— ์†Œ๊ธฐ๊ด€์ด ๊ฒฐ์—ฌ๋˜๊ณ  ๋ณ€์„ฑ๋œ ์†Œ๊ฒฌ์ด ๋งŽ์ด ๊ด€์ฐฐ๋˜์—ˆ๋‹ค(Fig. 4E).
์ „์ž๊ธฐํŒŒ๋…ธ์ถœ๊ตฐ์˜ ๊ณผ๋ฆฝ์„ธํฌ๋Š” ์ „์ž๋ฐ€๋„๊ฐ€ ๋†’๊ณ  ๋ถˆ๊ทœ์น™ํ•œ ํ˜•ํƒœ๋กœ ๊ด€์ฐฐ๋˜๋Š” ์„ธํฌ๊ฐ€ ๋Œ€์กฐ๊ตฐ์— ๋น„ํ•ด ํ˜„์ €ํ•˜๊ฒŒ ์ฆ๊ฐ€๋˜์–ด ์žˆ์—ˆ๊ณ  ์ด๋Ÿฐ ์„ธํฌ๋“ค์€ ์ผ๋ฐ˜์ ์ธ ์„ธํฌ์˜ ๋‘ฅ๊ทผ ํ˜•ํƒœ๋ฅผ ๋ณด์ด์ง€ ์•Š๊ณ  ์œ„์ถ•๋˜๊ณ  ๋ถˆ๊ทœ์น™ํ•œ ํ˜•ํƒœ๋กœ ๋‚˜ํƒ€๋‚ฌ๋‹ค(Fig. 4F).

๊ณ ์ฐฐ

์ด๋™ ํ†ต์‹ ๊ธฐ๊ธฐ์˜ ๊ธ‰์†ํ•œ ๋ฐœ๋‹ฌ์€ ์ตœ๊ทผ์— ์ธ๋ฅ˜์˜ ๊ฑด๊ฐ•์— ๋ฏธ์น˜๋Š” ์ „์ž๊ธฐํŒŒ์˜ ์˜ํ–ฅ์— ๋Œ€ํ•ด ๊ฑฑ์ •์„ ํ•˜๊ฒŒ ๋˜์—ˆ๊ณ  ์ด์— ๋Œ€ํ•œ ๋…ผ์Ÿ๋„ ๋งŽ์€ ๊ฒƒ์ด ํ˜„์‹ค์ด๋‹ค. ํŠนํžˆ, ์ž„์‹ ํ•œ ์—ฌ์„ฑ์ด๋‚˜ ์ถœ์‚ฐ ํ›„ ์‹ ์ƒ์•„๋ฅผ ํ’ˆ์— ์•ˆ๊ณ  ์ง€๋‚ด๋Š” ์–ด๋จธ๋‹ˆ๊ฐ€ ์ด๋™์ „ํ™”๋ฅผ ๋งŽ์ด ์‚ฌ์šฉํ•  ๊ฒฝ์šฐ ์ „์ž๊ธฐํŒŒ์— ๋Œ€ํ•œ ๋…ธ์ถœ์ด ํƒœ์•„ ๋˜๋Š” ์‹ ์ƒ์•„์˜ ๋‡Œ ๋ฐœ๋‹ฌ์— ์–ด๋–ค ์˜ํ–ฅ์„ ๋ฏธ์น˜๋Š” ์ง€๋Š” ํฐ ๊ด€์‹ฌ๊ฑฐ๋ฆฌ๊ฐ€ ๋  ์ˆ˜ ์žˆ๋‹ค. ๋ณธ ์‹คํ—˜์—์„œ๋Š” ๋‡Œ์˜ ์—ฌ๋Ÿฌ ๋ถ€์œ„ ์ค‘์—์„œ๋„ ์šด๋™์˜ ์ ์ ˆํ•œ ์กฐ์ •๊ณผ ํ†ตํ•ฉ์— ์ค‘์š”ํ•œ ๊ธฐ๋Šฅ์„ ํ•˜๋Š” ์†Œ๋‡Œ๋ฅผ ์„ ํƒํ•˜์—ฌ ์ „์ž๊ธฐํŒŒ ๋…ธ์ถœ์ด ์†Œ๋‡Œ ๊ฒ‰์งˆ์˜ ๋ฐœ๋‹ฌ์— ๋ฏธ์น˜๋Š” ์˜ํ–ฅ์„ ์•Œ์•„๋ณด๊ณ ์ž ํ•˜์˜€๋‹ค. ์‚ฌ๋žŒ์˜ ์†Œ๋‡Œ ๋ฐœ๋‹ฌ ๋‹จ๊ณ„๋Š” ๋žซ๋“œ์˜ ๊ฒฝ์šฐ์™€ ๋‹ฌ๋ผ์„œ ๋žซ๋“œ์—์„œ๋Š” ์ถœ์ƒ ํ›„ 10์ผ๊ฐ„์˜ ๊ธฐ๊ฐ„์ด ์‚ฌ๋žŒ์˜ ์†Œ๋‡Œ ๋ฐœ๋‹ฌ ๋‹จ๊ณ„์—์„œ๋Š” ์ž„์‹  27์ฃผ ์ดํ›„์— ํ•ด๋‹นํ•˜๋Š” ์‹œ๊ธฐ๋กœ ์‚ฌ๋žŒ์˜ ์ž„์‹  ํ›„๊ธฐ์˜ ์†Œ๋‡Œ๋ฐœ๋‹ฌ๊ณผ ๊ทธ ์‹œ๊ธฐ๊ฐ€ ์ผ์น˜ํ•œ๋‹ค [2, 6, 17].
๋ณธ ์—ฐ๊ตฌ์—์„œ๋Š” ์ž„์‹ ํ•œ ๋žซ๋“œ๋ฅผ ์‹คํ—˜ํ™˜๊ฒฝ์— ์ ์‘์‹œ์ผœ ์ƒˆ๋ผ๋ฅผ ์ถœ์‚ฐํ•œ ํ›„ ์ถœ์ƒ ์ฒซ๋‚ ๋ถ€ํ„ฐ 3์ฃผ ๋™์•ˆ ์ •ํ•ด์ง„ ์‹œ๊ฐ„์— ํ•˜๋ฃจ 1์‹œ๊ฐ„์”ฉ ์ผ์ •ํ•˜๊ฒŒ ์ง„๋™ ์ˆ˜์‹  ๋ชจ๋“œ์˜ ํœด๋Œ€์ „ํ™” ์ „์ž๊ธฐํŒŒ์— ๋…ธ์ถœ์‹œ์ผœ ์‚ฌ๋žŒ์˜ ๊ฒฝ์šฐ ์ž„์‹  ํ›„๊ธฐ์™€ ์ถœ์ƒ ์งํ›„์˜ ์‹œ๊ธฐ์— ์ „์ž๊ธฐํŒŒ์— ๋…ธ์ถœ๋˜๋Š” ๊ฒƒ๊ณผ ๋Œ€์‘๋  ์ˆ˜ ์žˆ๋„๋ก ์‹œ๊ธฐ๋ฅผ ๊ณ ๋ คํ•˜์—ฌ ์‹คํ—˜์„ ์ˆ˜ํ–‰ํ–ˆ๋‹ค.
์ €๋ฐฐ์œจ ํ˜„๋ฏธ๊ฒฝ ๊ด€์ฐฐ์—์„œ ์†Œ๋‡Œ๋ฒŒ๋ ˆ๋ฅผ ์ง€๋‚˜๋Š” ๋‹จ๋ฉด์—์„œ ํ™•์ธํ•ด๋ณธ ๊ฒฐ๊ณผ ๊ณ ๋ž‘๊ณผ ์ด๋ž‘์˜ ํ˜•์„ฑ ๋“ฑ์„ ํฌํ•จํ•˜์—ฌ ์†Œ๋‡Œ์˜ ์ „๋ฐ˜์ ์ธ ์œค๊ณฝ์€ ๋Œ€์กฐ๊ตฐ๊ณผ ์ „์ž๊ธฐํŒŒ๋…ธ์ถœ๊ตฐ ์‚ฌ์ด์— ํฐ ์ฐจ์ด๊ฐ€ ์—†์—ˆ์ง€๋งŒ ์ „์ž๊ธฐํŒŒ๋…ธ์ถœ๊ตฐ์˜ ๋ฐ”๊นฅ๊ณผ๋ฆฝ์„ธํฌ๊ฐ€ ๊ณ ๋ž‘๋ถ€์œ„์—์„œ ๋งŽ์ด ์กด์žฌํ•˜๊ณ  ์žˆ์Œ์€ ๋Œ€์กฐ๊ตฐ๊ณผ ๋‹ค๋ฅธ ์ ์ด์—ˆ๋Š”๋ฐ ์ด๋Š” ์†Œ๋‡Œ๋ฐœ๋‹ฌ ์ดˆ๊ธฐ ๋‹จ๊ณ„์—์„œ ๋ฐ”๊นฅ๊ณผ๋ฆฝ์„ธํฌ๊ฐ€ ์†๊ณผ๋ฆฝ์„ธํฌ์˜ ํ˜•์„ฑ์„ ์œ„ํ•ด ๊ฒ‰์งˆ์„ ๊ด€ํ†ตํ•˜์—ฌ ์ด๋™ํ•˜๋Š” ํ˜„์ƒ์ด ์ œ๋Œ€๋กœ ์ด๋ฃจ์–ด์ง€์ง€ ์•Š์€ ๊ฒฐ๊ณผ๋กœ ๋ณด์ธ๋‹ค. Bergmann ์•„๊ต์„ธํฌ๋Š” ๋ฐ”๊นฅ๊ณผ๋ฆฝ์„ธํฌ๊ฐ€ ๋ถ„์ž์ธต์„ ๊ฐ€๋กœ์งˆ๋Ÿฌ ์ด๋™ํ•  ๋•Œ ์ด๋™์„ ์œ ๋„ํ•˜๋Š” ๊ฐ€์ด๋“œ ์—ญํ• ์„ ํ•˜๋Š”๋ฐ [13, 16], ์ด๋Š” ๋ฐ”๊นฅ๊ณผ๋ฆฝ์„ธํฌ์˜ ์ด๋™์„ ์œ ๋„ํ•˜๋Š” Bergmann ์•„๊ต์„ธํฌ์˜ ์•„๊ต์„ฌ์œ ๊ฐ€ ์†์ƒ๋˜์–ด ์ •์ƒ์ ์ธ ์œ ๋„๊ฐ€ ์•ˆ๋˜๊ณ  ๋ฐ”๊นฅ๊ณผ๋ฆฝ์„ธํฌ๊ฐ€ ์†๊ณผ๋ฆฝ์ธต์„ ํ˜•์„ฑํ•˜๋Š”๋ฐ ๊ธฐ์—ฌํ•˜์ง€ ๋ชปํ•˜๊ณ  ๊ทธ๋Œ€๋กœ ๋ฐ”๊นฅ๊ณผ๋ฆฝ์ธต์— ๋‚จ์•„์žˆ๊ธฐ ๋•Œ๋ฌธ์œผ๋กœ ๋ณด์ธ๋‹ค. ์ด๋Š” ์†Œ๋‡Œ์— ๊ฐ€ํ•ด์ง„ ์ŠคํŠธ๋ ˆ์Šค์˜ ์ข…๋ฅ˜๋Š” ๋‹ค๋ฅด์ง€๋งŒ ์ž„์‹ ๊ธฐ๊ฐ„ ๋™์•ˆ ์•Œ์ฝœ์— ๋…ธ์ถœ๋œ ๋žซ๋“œ์˜ ์†Œ๋‡Œ์—์„œ ๋ฐ”๊นฅ๊ณผ๋ฆฝ์„ธํฌ์˜ ์ด๋™์ด ์ง€์—ฐ๋œ๋‹ค๋Š” ์—ฐ๊ตฌ [4]์™€ ์œ ์‚ฌํ•œ ๊ฒƒ์ด๋‹ค. ๋ณธ ์‹คํ—˜์—์„œ Bergmann ์•„๊ต์„ธํฌ์˜ ๋ฏธ์„ธ๊ตฌ์กฐ๋Š” ์„ธํฌ์ฒด์˜ ๋ณ€์„ฑ๋ณ€ํ™”๊ฐ€ ์‹ฌํ•œ ์ƒํƒœ๋Š” ์•„๋‹ˆ์—ˆ์ง€๋งŒ ์•„๊ต์„ธํฌ์˜ ๋Œ๊ธฐ๊ฐ€ ์†์ƒ๋˜์–ด ๋ฐ”๊นฅ๊ณผ๋ฆฝ์„ธํฌ์˜ ์ด๋™์„ ๊ฐ€์ด๋“œํ•˜์ง€ ๋ชปํ•˜๋Š” ๊ฒƒ์œผ๋กœ ๋ณด์ธ๋‹ค.
์†Œ๋‡Œ ๊ฒ‰์งˆ์˜ ๋ฐœ๋‹ฌ๊ณผ์ •์—์„œ ๋ถ€์ฑ—์‚ด์•„๊ต์„ธํฌ(radial glial cell)๋Š” ํ˜•ํƒœ์ ์ธ ๋ณ€ํ™”๋ฅผ ๊ฑฐ์ณ Bergmann ์•„๊ต์„ธํฌ๋กœ ๋ถ„ํ™”๋˜๋Š”๋ฐ ๋ณดํ†ต ์„ธํฌ๋‹น 3 - 6๊ฐœ์˜ ๋ถ„์ž์ธต์„ ๊ฐ€๋กœ์งˆ๋Ÿฌ ๋‹ฌ๋ฆฌ๋Š” ๋Œ๊ธฐ๋ฅผ ๊ฐ€์ง€๊ณ  ์žˆ๋‹ค. Bergmann ์•„๊ต์„ธํฌ์˜ ๋Œ๊ธฐ๋Š” ์ถœ์ƒ ์งํ›„ ๋‚˜ํƒ€๋‚˜๊ธฐ ์‹œ์ž‘ํ•˜์—ฌ ์ถœ์ƒ ํ›„ 1์ฃผ์ผ๊นŒ์ง€ ์ฆ๊ฐ€ํ•˜๊ณ  ๊ทธ ํ›„ ๊ฐ์†Œํ•˜๋Š”๋ฐ[20], ์ด๋Š” ๋ฐ”๊นฅ๊ณผ๋ฆฝ์„ธํฌ์˜ ์ด๋™์‹œ๊ธฐ์™€ ๊ด€๋ จ์ด ์žˆ๋Š” ๊ฒƒ์œผ๋กœ ๋ณด์ธ๋‹ค.
๋ณธ ์‹คํ—˜์—์„œ ์ „์ž๊ธฐํŒŒ ๋…ธ์ถœ Purkinje ์„ธํฌ์˜ ์„ธํฌ์งˆ์ด ์ง„ํ•˜๊ฒŒ ์—ผ์ƒ‰๋˜๊ณ  ํ•ต์ด ๋†์ถ•๋˜๋Š” ์„ธํฌ๋“ค์ด ๋‹ค์ˆ˜ ๊ด€์ฐฐ๋˜์—ˆ๋Š”๋ฐ ์ „์žํ˜„๋ฏธ๊ฒฝ ๊ด€์ฐฐ์—์„œ ์ „์ž๋ฐ€๋„๊ฐ€ ๋†’์€ ์„ธํฌ๋“ค์€ ์„ธํฌ์˜ ์ „์ฒด์ ์ธ ์œค๊ณฝ์ด ์œ„์ถ•๋˜๊ณ  ์„ธํฌ์งˆ์†Œ๊ธฐ๊ด€์˜ ๋ณ€์„ฑ์ด ํ”ํ•˜๊ฒŒ ๊ด€์ฐฐ๋˜์—ˆ๋‹ค. ์‚ฌ๋ฆฝ์ฒด๋Š” ์ข…์ฐฝ๋˜๊ณ  ์‚ฌ๋ฆฝ์ฒด๋Šฅ์„ ์˜ ์†์ƒ ๋ฐ ๋ถˆ๊ทœ์น™ํ•œ ๋ฐฐ์—ด๊ณผ ๋”๋ถˆ์–ด ๊ณผ๋ฆฝํ˜•์งˆ๋‚ด์„ธ๋ง๊ณผ Golgi ๋ณตํ•ฉ์ฒด์˜ ์ˆ˜์กฐ๊ฐ€ ์‹ฌํ•˜๊ฒŒ ์ข…์ฐฝ๋˜๋Š” ํ˜„์ƒ์ด ๋šœ๋ ทํ•˜๊ฒŒ ๊ด€์ฐฐ๋˜์—ˆ๋Š”๋ฐ ์ด๋Š” Purkinje ์„ธํฌ์˜ dark change์™€ ๋”๋ถˆ์–ด terbutaline [22]์— ์˜ํ•ด ์œ ๋ฐœ๋  ์ˆ˜ ์žˆ๋Š” ๋ณ€์„ฑ๋ณ€ํ™”์™€ ์œ ์‚ฌํ•˜์˜€๋‹ค. ์ด๋Ÿฌํ•œ ๋ณ€์„ฑ์€ ์—ํƒ„์˜ฌ [15]์— ์˜ํ•ด์„œ๋„ ์œ ๋ฐœ๋  ์ˆ˜ ์žˆ๊ณ  ์ด๋Š” Purkinje ์„ธํฌ๊ฐ€ ์†์ƒ์„ ๋ฐ›์„ ๋•Œ ์ผ์–ด๋‚˜๋Š” ์ผ๋ฐ˜์ ์ธ ๋ณ€ํ™”๋กœ ๋ณด์ธ๋‹ค.
๊ณผ๋ฆฝ์„ธํฌ์˜ dark change๋„ ๊ฐ™์€ ๋งฅ๋ฝ์œผ๋กœ ๋ณ€์„ฑ๋˜๋Š” ์„ธํฌ์—์„œ ๋‚˜ํƒ€๋‚œ ๊ฒƒ์œผ๋กœ ๋ณด์ด๊ณ  ์ „์ž๊ธฐํŒŒ์— ๋…ธ์ถœ๋˜์—ˆ์„ ๋•Œ ๋Œ€์กฐ๊ตฐ์˜ ๊ฒฝ์šฐ์™€ ๋น„๊ตํ•˜์—ฌ ์„ธํฌ์˜ ๋ณ€์„ฑ๋ณ€ํ™”๊ฐ€ ์ข…์ข… ๊ด€์ฐฐ๋˜๋Š” ๊ฒƒ์œผ๋กœ ๋ณด์ธ๋‹ค.
๋ณ€์„ฑ๋œ ๊ณผ๋ฆฝ์„ธํฌ์— ์ธ์ ‘ํ•œ Bergmann ์•„๊ต์„ธํฌ๋Š” ์„ธํฌ์งˆ ์†Œ๊ธฐ๊ด€์ด ์†Œ์‹ค๋˜๊ณ  ์„ธํฌ๊ฐ€ ์ข…์ฐฝ๋˜๋Š” ๋ณ€ํ™”๊ฐ€ ๊ด€์ฐฐ๋˜์—ˆ๋‹ค. ์ด๊ฒƒ์€ Bergmann ์•„๊ต์„ธํฌ์˜ ์„ธํฌ์งˆ ์†์ƒ๊ณผ ๋”๋ถˆ์–ด ๋Œ๊ธฐ์˜ ์†์ƒ๋„ ์ถ”์ •ํ•  ์ˆ˜ ์žˆ์œผ๋ฉฐ ์ด๋กœ ์ธํ•ด์„œ ์†Œ๋‡Œ ๋ฐœ๋‹ฌ ๋‹จ๊ณ„์—์„œ ๋ฐ”๊นฅ๊ณผ๋ฆฝ์„ธํฌ๊ฐ€ ์†๊ณผ๋ฆฝ์ธต์œผ๋กœ ์ด์ฃผํ•˜๋Š”๋ฐ ์ œํ•œ์ด ๋˜๋Š” ๊ฒƒ์œผ๋กœ ์‚ฌ๋ฃŒ๋œ๋‹ค.
๋ณธ ์—ฐ๊ตฌ์˜ ๊ฒฐ๊ณผ๋Š” ์‹ ์ƒ ๋žซ๋“œ์˜ ์†Œ๋‡Œ ๋ฐœ๋‹ฌ์‹œ๊ธฐ์— ์ „์ž๊ธฐํŒŒ์— ๊ณผ๋‹คํ•˜๊ฒŒ ๋…ธ์ถœ๋  ๊ฒฝ์šฐ Bergmann ์•„๊ต์„ธํฌ์˜ ์†์ƒ์œผ๋กœ ์ธํ•ด ๋ฐ”๊นฅ๊ณผ๋ฆฝ์„ธํฌ๊ฐ€ ์†๊ณผ๋ฆฝ์ธต์œผ๋กœ ์ด์ฃผ๊ฐ€ ์ง€์—ฐ๋˜๊ณ , Purkinje ์„ธํฌ์˜ ์†์ƒ๊ณผ ๋ณ€์„ฑ, ๊ณผ๋ฆฝ์„ธํฌ์˜ ๋ณ€์„ฑ ๋“ฑ์„ ์œ ๋ฐœํ•˜์—ฌ ์†Œ๋‡Œ ๋ฐœ๋‹ฌ์— ์ข‹์ง€ ์•Š์€ ์˜ํ–ฅ์„ ๋ฏธ์น˜๋Š” ๊ฒƒ์„ ๋ณด์—ฌ์ค€๋‹ค.

๊ฐ์‚ฌ์˜ ๊ธ€

์ด ๋…ผ๋ฌธ์€ 2017ํ•™๋…„๋„ ๊ฑด๊ตญ๋Œ€ํ•™๊ต์˜ ์—ฐ๊ตฌ๋…„ ๊ต์› ์ง€์›์— ์˜ํ•˜์—ฌ ์—ฐ๊ตฌ๋˜์—ˆ์Œ.

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